I've always enjoyed learning about other cultures and their celebrations. A few years ago I stumbled across Diwali...and fell in love.
The history of Diwali is replete with legends and these legends are moored to the stories of Hindu religious scriptures, mostly the Puranas. Though the central theme of all legends point out to the classic truth of the victory of the good over the evils, the mode of their presentation and the characters differ. Diwali, being the festival of lights, lighting the lamp of knowledge within us means to understand and reflect upon the significant purpose of each of the five days of festivities and to bring those thoughts in to the day to day lives.
The five day of Diwali
The first day of Diwali is called Dhanvantari Triodasi or Dhanwantari Triodasi also called Dhan Theras. The second day of Diwali is called Narak Chaturdasi. It is the fourteenth lunar day (thithi) of the dark forthnight of the month of Kartik and the eve of Diwali. On this day Lord Krishna destroyed the demon Narakasur and made the world free from fear. The third day of Diwali is the actual Diwali. This is the day when worship for Mother Lakshmi is performed. On the fourth day of Diwali, Goverdhan Pooja is performed. The fifth day of the diwali is called Bhratri Dooj. It is a day dedicated to sisters.
The Story of Rama and Sita: Lord Rama was a great warrior King who was exiled by his father Dashratha, the King of Ayodhya, along with his wife Sita and his younger brother Lakshman, on his wife's insistence. Lord Rama returned to his Kingdom Ayodhya after 14 years of exile, in which he put an end to the demon Ravana of Lanka, who was a great Pundit, highly learned but still evil dominated his mind. After this victory of Good over Evil, Rama returned to Ayodhya. In Ayodhya, the people welcomed them by lighting rows of clay lamps. So, it is an occasion in honor of Rama's victory over Ravana; of Truth's victory over Evil.
The Story of King Bali and Vamana Avatar(the Dwarf): The other story concerns King Bali, who was a generous ruler. But he was also very ambitious. Some of the Gods pleaded Vishnu to check King Bali's power. Vishnu came to earth in the form of a Vamana(dwarf) dressed as priest. The dwarf approached King Bali and said "You are the ruler of the three worlds: the Earth, the world above the skies and the underworld. Would you give me the space that I could cover with three strides?" King Bali laughed. Surely a dwarf could not cover much ground, thought the King, who agreed to dwarf's request. At this point, the dwarf changed into Vishnu and his three strides covered the Earth, the Skies and the whole Universe! King Bali was send to the underworld. As part of Diwali celebrations, some Hindus remember King Bali.
The Defeat of Narkasur by Lord Krishna: Lord Vishnu in his 8th incarnation as Krishna destroyed the demon Narkasura, who was causing great unhappiness amongst the people of the world. Narkasura was believed to be a demon of filth, covered in dirt. He used to kidnap beautiful young women and force them to live with him. Eventually, their cries for rescue were heard by Vishnu, who came in the form of Krishna. First, Krishna had to fight with a five-headed monster who guarded the demon's home. Narkasura hoped that his death might bring joy to others. Krishna granted his request and the women were freed. For Hindus, this story is a reminder that good can still come out of evil.
Krishna and The Mountain: In the village of Gokula, many years ago, the people prayed to the God Indra. They believed that Indra sent the rains, which made their crops, grow. But Krishna came along and persuaded the people to worship the mountain Govardhan, because the mountain and the land around it were fertile. This did not please Indra. He sent thunder and torrential rain down on the village. The people cried to Krishna to help. Krishna saved the villagers by lifting the top of the mountain with his finger. The offering of food to God on this day of Diwali is a reminder to Hindus of the importance of food and it is a time for being thankful to God for the bounty of nature.
Sikh Festival Diwali
In Sikh perspective, Diwali is celebrated as the return of the sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind Ji from the captivity of the city, Gwalior. To commemorate his undying love for Sikhism, the towns people lit the way to, Harmandhir Sahib (referred to as the Golden Temple), in his honour.
Jain Festival Diwali
Among the Jain festivals, Diwali is one of the most important one. For on this occasion we celebrate the Nirvana of Lord Mahavira who established the dharma as we follow it. Lord Mahavira was born as Vardhamana on Chaitra Shukla 13th in the Nata clan at Khattiya-kundapura, near Vaishali. He obtained Kevala Gyana on Vishakha Shukla 10 at the Jambhraka village on the banks of Rijukula river at the age of 42.
Deepavali, the literal meaning of which in Sanskrit is 'a row of lamps.' Filling little clay lamps with oil and wick and lighting them in rows all over the house is a tradition that is popular in most regions of the country. Even today in this modern world it projects the rich and glorious past of our country and teaches us to uphold the true values of life. It is associated with many customs and traditions. One of the most curious customs, which characterizes this festival of Diwali, is the indulgence of gambling, especially on a large scale in North India.
The first day of five day long Diwali celebrations is of great importance to the rich community of western India. Houses and business premises are renovated and decorated. Entrances are made colorful with lovely traditional motifs of Rangoli designs to welcome Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth and prosperity. To indicate her long-awaited arrival, small footprints are drawn with rice flour and vermilion powder all over the houses. Lamps are kept burning all through the night. Believing this day to be auspicious women purchase some gold or silver or at least one or two new utensils.
Lakshmi-Puja is performed in the evenings when tiny diyas of clay are lighted to drive away the shadows of evil spirits, devotional songs- in praise of Goddess Laxmi are sung and Naivedya of traditional sweets is offered to the Goddess. There is a peculiar custom in Maharashtra to lightly pound dry coriander seeds with jaggery and offer as Naivedya In villages cattle are adorned and worshiped by farmers as they form the main source of their income. In south cows are offered special veneration as they are supposed to be the incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi and therefore they are adorned and worshiped on this day .
On second day there is a traditional practice specially in Maharashtra of taking bath before sunrise with oil and "Uptan" (paste) of gram flour and fragrant powders. In northern India, especially in places like Punjab, Diwali is dedicated to the worship of Lord Rama. While in Bengal, Kali/Durga, the goddess of strength, is worshiped. Diwali is one of the few Hindu festivals, which is celebrated in every part of the country, even in states like Kerala that has Onam as its main festival. To the Jains, Deepavali has an added significance to the great event of Mahaveera attaining the Eternal Bliss of Nirvaana.
Govardhan-Puja is also performed in the North on the fourth day. This day is also observed as Annakoot meaning 'mountain of food'. In temples especially in Mathura and Nathadwara, the deities are given milk bath and dressed in shining attires with ornaments of dazzling diamonds, pearls, rubies and other precious stones. After the prayers and traditional worship innumerable varieties of delicious sweets are offered to the deities as "Bhog" and then the devotees approach and take Prasad.
Goddess Lakshmi is worshiped in every Hindu household. In many Hindu homes it is a custom for the wife to put the red tilak on the forehead of her husband, garland him and do his "Aarti" with a prayer for his long life. In appreciation of all the tender care that the wife showers on him, the husband gives her a costly gift. This Gudi Padwa is symbolic of love and devotion between the wife and husband. On this day newly married daughters with their husbands are invited for special meals and given presents. Diwali celebration is a very happy occasion for all.
Diwali Meaning & Significance
Deepavali is a festival where people from all age groups participate. They give expression to their happiness by lighting earthen 'diyas' (lamps), decorating the houses, bursting firecrackers and inviting near and dear ones to their households for partaking in a sumptuous feast. The lighting of lamps is a way of paying obeisance to god for attainment of health, wealth, knowledge, peace, valor and fame.
It is one time in the whole year that children volunteer to leave their beds long before the day begins. In fact, the traditional oil bath at 3 a.m, is the only chore that stands between them and the pre-dawn adventures. They emerge, scrubbed clean to get into their festive attire, and light up little oil lamps, candles and scented sticks(agarbathis), the wherewithal for setting alight crackers and sparklers.
On Diwali night, little clay lamps are lit in Hindus homes, but now a days colored electric lamps are also used. What is the significance of lighting a lamp? There is a logical answer to this question. It is through the light that the beauty of this world is revealed or experienced. Most civilizations of the world recognize the importance of light as a gift of God. It has always been a symbol of whatever is positive in our world of experience.
To Hindus, darkness represents ignorance, and light is a metaphor for knowledge. Therefore, lighting a lamp symbolizes the destruction, through knowledge, of all negative forces- wickedness, violence, lust, anger, envy, greed, bigotry, fear, injustice, oppression and suffering, etc. Competition is stiff, and even the little girl in silk frocks and their finery are watching out for the best sparklers and flowerpots, the rockets and Vishnuchakras, which light-up the night sky like a thousand stars. Grown-ups are the soul of generosity. Festive bonhomie abounds.
Royal Vermicilli Kheer
Vermicilli - 1/2 cup (thin variety)
Milk - 4 cups
Sugar - 1/2 - 3/4 cup
Cream - 1/4 cup
Ghee - 4 tabs
Almonds - 2 tabs
Cinnamon powder - 1 level tsp
Bananas - 3 (small)
Fry vermicilli in 2 tabs of ghee,till light gold in colour.let it gets cold.Skin almonds-chop them into small pieces.Fry in 2 tabs of ghee,tillwell toasted.
Boil the milk,add the vermicilli and keep on stirring over low heat tillthe vermicilli is just cooked and the milk is thick.(Do not over cook the vermicilli).Reduce heat and add sugar little by little-stirring all the time till the sugar dissolves.
Remove from heat,when cold,mix in the cream,almonds,cinnamon powder and chopped bananas.Serve chilled with a little silver varg on top for decoration.
Rice - 1/2 cup
Milk - 6 cups
Sugar - 3/4 cup
Camphor - pinch
or nutmeg - pinch
Wash rice well, and cook it with milk till semi thick(stirring all the time so that the rice does not stick to the bottom of the vessel and the rice is well cooked.
Reduce heat,add the sugar,little by little when sugar is well incorporated remove from fire.
Fry in ghee the cashewnuts and raisins,till golden in colour.When cold add to kheer.Powder camphor or nutmeg and add that too.Serve hot or cold.
You could add 1/4 cup of beaten cream when the kheer is cold.Instead of sugar you could heat 1-1/4 cup of palm jaggery(or ordinary jaggery) with a 1/4 cup of water-when jaggery completely dissolves-strain and when cold,add to the cold thickened kheer.Add powdered camphor or nutmeg.
Carrots -1/2 kg
(preferably Red Delhi Carrots)
Milk -1 litre
Cardamom -4 to 5
Sugar -1/4 kg
Charmagz -1 tbsp
(dried melon seeds)
Ghee or cashew nuts -100 gms
Almonds -a few
Scrap carrots and grate them.Bring milk to a boil in a heavy bottomed pan.Add grated carrots.Cook on medium heat stirring occasionally without closing the lid till the mixture is fairly dry(Opp-30 to 40 mts).Add sugar, cardamom crushed and melon seeds,mix well till everything becomes semi solid dry. Then add ghee and fry well by adding the nuts cashew nuts and badam. Decorate with silver foil and serve after getting cold.
Besan Ka Ladoo
Ghee - 225 gms Besan - 225 gms Castor sugar - 350 gms Cashewnuts chopped - 1 tsp Almonds chopped - 1 tsp Pistachio - 1 tsp
Place the ghee and besan in a pan over a low heat.
Keep stirring the mixture to avoid the formation of lumps.
When the mixture is cooked, it will release an aromatic flavour.
Remove the pan from the heat and let it cool.
Add the sugar and chopped cashewnuts to the besan mixture and stir in thoroughly.
Now mould small balls of appropriate size, from the mixture
Serve hot or cold
Split green gram -
(without skin) 1/4 cup
Gram dhal - 1/4 cup
Coconut - 1/2 cup
Cucumber - 1 cup
Green chillies - 2
Ginger - 1 cm
Lime - 1/2
Oil - 1 tabs
Salt - 1/2 tsp
Mustard - 1/4 tsp
Urrad dhal - 1/4 tsp
Red chillies - 1
Hing powder - pinch
Clean and soak both the dhals overnight in water. Next morning wash well, and drain off all the liquid. Chop green chillies and ginger. Grate the cucumber and squeeze out the juice.
Just before serving, mix the dhals, green chillies, ginger, cucumber, salt and coconut. Heat oil, add mustard, urrad dhal, red chillies and hing. When mustard splutters pour into the salad, squueze lime juice into it and if liked, add chopped coriander leaves to it. This is a traditional salad and is very nutritious.
Gram Dhal Vada
Gram dhal - 2 cups
Coriander leaves - 1/4 cups
Salt - 3/4 cups
Curry leaves - little
Red chillies - 4
Green chillies - 3
Ginger - 1 cm
Onion - 2
Soak gram dhal in water for 2 hours. Wash with water and drain off water. Chop onion, gren chillies, curry leaves and coriander leaves. Grind the dhal coarsely with red chillies. Add all the other ingredients - make into wadas, deep fry in oil till golden in colour. Can be served hot or cold - very tasty!